Now it is time to start gathering resources, and to begin the early stages of building your factory. You will need Iron, Stone, Coal, and Copper (You won't need much copper right away). Iron is the main resource you will need, you can never really have too much of it, especially in the early game where you will need it to produce nearly everything.
This early stage of the game is commonly known as the Burner Stage, and is pretty simple and isnt' too difficult to learn. You will use the Burner Miners to mine the resources, and then Stone Furnaces to smelt the Iron/Copper ore into plates, and the Stone into bricks. The Burner Miners are simple machines that require fuel (coal or wood at this stage) to run. They mine the resources automatically with no additional input from you, as long as they have an output and fuel.
The ore is outputted from the Mining drill in the direction the arrow shows (in alt view), and will drop onto the ground tile, onto a transport belt or into another entity if it is at that position. You can see that the ore can be inserted directly into a furnace by just facing the miner towards it and placing the Stone furnace right against the miner. For an easy, Iron and Copper smelting, put some burner miners down on top of the ore patches. You can then put a furnace in front of the miner, put some fuel in it, and the ore will be smelted into plate.
Stone is also needed early in the game, but stone bricks are not. So for the stone patches it's reccomended to have the miner deposit directly into a chest intially.
With coal, it isn't needed to smelt it or refine it any further than it already is, so you just mine it and use the Coal directly. There are two methods for mining and collecting it. Either do the same as you did with the stone and just have it inserted directly into a chest, or use a little trick illustrated in the picture above.
Notice how the miners are all facing each other with their outputs. This allows the miners to output their coal into the next one, and keep it running. This works well because it gives the miners a constant supply of fuel, and allows them to work indefinitely. You can then take some of the coal from the fuel slot, for use in the other burner machinery.
Once you have enough iron you can craft some transport belts and burner inserters, and further automate you production, as this example shows
This covers the basics for this very early stage of the game. The main goal at this time is to secure enough iron plate to expand your automation in the coming stages of the game.